b) Second law of thermodynamics
c) Black Scholes model
d) Wave equation
e) Shannon's information theory
f) Maxwell's equations (this is a freebie, note the plural)
g) Fourier's transform
1) Schrodinger's Equation - Models matter as a wave, rather than a particle.
2) Second Law Of Thermodynamics - Energy and heat dissipate over time.
3) The Wave Equation - A differential equation that describes the behavior of waves, originally the behavior of a vibrating violin string.
4) Shannon's Information Theory - Estimates the amount of data in a piece of code by the probabilities of its component symbols.
5) Maxwell's Equations - Maps out the relationship between electric and magnetic fields.
6) The Fourier's Transform - Describes patterns in time as a function of frequency.
7) Black Scholes Model - Prices a derivative based on the assumption that it is riskless and that there is no arbitrage opportunity when it is priced correctly.
Get 5 or 6 correctly, you should be a Phd student in maths. Get all correct, you should have an IQ above 200 or be in a mental ward. Get 3-4 right, aren't you a bombastic know it all bastard. Get 0-2 correct, hey you are normal.